Cruise ship

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MS Majesty of the Seas, a cruise ship completed in 1992

A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience, as well as the different destinations along the way. Transportation is not the prime purpose, as cruise ships operate mostly on routes that return passengers to their originating port, so the ports of call are usually in a specified region of a continent.

In contrast, dedicated transport oriented ocean liners do "line voyages" and typically transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. Traditionally, an ocean liner for the transoceanic trade will be built to a higher standard than a typical cruise ship, including high freeboard and stronger plating to withstand rough seas and adverse conditions encountered in the open ocean, such as the North Atlantic. Ocean liners also usually have larger capacities for fuel, victuals, and other stores for consumption on long voyages, compared to dedicated cruise ships. However, liners had characteristics that made them unsuitable for cruising, such as high fuel consumption, deep draught preventing that them from entering shallow ports, enclosed weatherproof decks that were not appropriate for tropical weather, and cabins designed to maximise passenger numbers rather than comfort (few if any private balconies, many windowless suites). The modern cruise ships, while sacrificing qualities of seaworthiness, have added many amenities to cater to tourists, and recent vessels have been described as "balcony-laden floating condominiums".[1]

However, the lines between both types of passenger ships have blurred, particularly with respect to deployment. Larger cruise ships have also engaged in longer trips such as transocean voyages which may not lead back to the same port for many months (longer round trips).[2] Some former ocean liners currently operate as cruise ships, such as MS Marco Polo and MS Mona Lisa, however this number is ever decreasing. The only dedicated transatlantic ocean liner in operation as a liner, as of February 2010, is the Queen Mary 2 of the Cunard fleet, however she also has the amenities of contemporary cruise ships and sees significant service on cruises.[3]

Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, accounting for U.S.$27 billion with over 18 million passengers carried worldwide [4] in 2010. The world's largest cruise liner is Royal Carribean International's Oasis of the Seas. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets such as the Asia-Pacific region are generally serviced by older tonnage displaced by new ships introduced into the high growth areas.


The Freedom of the Seas, formerly the largest cruise ship in the world

Early years

The first vessel built exclusively for this purpose was the Prinzessin Victoria Luise, designed by Albert Ballin, general manager of Hamburg-America Line. The ship was completed in 1900.

The practice of cruising grew gradually out of the transatlantic crossing tradition, which never took fewer than four days. In the competition for passengers, ocean liners added many luxuries — the Titanic being the most famous example — such as fine dining and well-appointed staterooms.

In the late 19th century, Albert Ballin, director of the Hamburg-America Line, was the first to send his transatlantic ships out on long southern cruises during the worst of the winter season of the North Atlantic. Other companies followed suit. Some of them built specialized ships designed for easy transformation between summer crossings and winter cruising.

Jet age

With the advent of large passenger jet aircraft in the 1960s, intercontinental travelers largely switched from ships to planes, sending the ocean liner trade into a slow decline. Certain characteristics of older ocean liners made them unsuitable for cruising duties, such as high fuel consumption, deep draught preventing them from entering shallow ports, and cabins (often windowless) designed to maximise passenger numbers rather than comfort. Ocean liner services aimed at passengers ceased in 1986, with the notable exception of transatlantic crossings operated by the Cunard Line, catering to the niche market who enjoy the few days of luxury and enforced idleness that a liner voyage affords.

In comparison to liner crossings, cruising voyages gained popularity; slowly at first but at an increased rate from the 1980s onwards. Initially the fledgling industry was serviced primarily by small redundant liners, and even the first purpose built cruise ships were small. This changed after the success of the SS Norway (originally the ocean liner SS France, which was converted to cruising duties) as the Caribbean's first "super-ship".

Contemporary cruise ships built in the late 1980s and beyond, such as Sovereign-class which broke the size record held for decades by Norway, show characteristics of size and strength once reserved for ocean liners—some have undertaken regular scheduled transatlantic crossings.[5] The Sovereigns were the first modern "megaships" to be built, they also were the first series of cruise ships to include a multi-story atrium with glass elevators. They also had a single deck devoted entirely to cabins with private balconies instead of oceanview cabins. Other cruise lines soon launched ships with similar attributes, such as the Fantasy class and Crown Princess. As the veranda suites were particularly lucrative for cruise lines, something which was lacking in older ocean liners, recent cruise ships have been designed to maximize such amenities and have been described as "balcony-laden floating condominiums".[6]

There have been nine or more newly-built cruise ships added every year since 2001, all at 100,000 tonnes or greater. The only comparable ocean liner to be completed in recent years has been Cunard Line's Queen Mary 2 in 2004. Following the retirement of her running mate the Queen Elizabeth 2 in November 2008, Queen Mary 2 is the only liner operating on transatlantic routes, though she also sees significant service on cruise routes.[7]


Until 1975-1980, cruises offered shuffleboard, deck chairs, "drinks with umbrellas and little else for a few hundred passengers." After 1980, they offered increasing amenities. As of 2010, city-sized ships have dozens of amenities.[8]

Modern days

The 1970s television show The Love Boat, featuring Princess Cruises' since-sold ship Pacific Princess, did much to raise awareness of cruises as a vacation option for ordinary people in the United States. Initially, this growth was centered around the Caribbean, Alaska, and Mexico, but now encompasses all areas of the globe. Today, several hundred large cruise ships ply routes worldwide, with plans for larger vessels.

For certain destinations such as the Arctic and Antarctica, cruise ships are very nearly the only way to visit.

The largest passenger cruise ships are the Oasis class vessels owned and operated by Royal Caribbean International; these are MS Oasis of the Seas, and the under-construction MS Allure of the Seas. Oasis of the Seas is 1,187 feet (362 m) long, sits 236 feet (72 m) above the water line, and measures 225,282 gross tons.[9]


Cruise ships are organized much like floating hotels, with a complete hospitality staff in addition to the usual ship's crew. It is not uncommon for the most luxurious ships to have more crew and staff than passengers.


Dining on almost all cruise ships is included in the cruise price, except on EasyCruise and Cruiseferry. Traditionally, the ships' restaurants organize two dinner services per day and passengers are allocated a set dining time for the entire cruise, but a recent trend is to allow diners to dine whenever they want.

As with any vessel, adequate provisioning is crucial, especially on a cruise ship serving several thousand meals at each seating. For example, passengers and crew on the Royal Caribbean International ship Mariner of the Seas consume 20,000 pounds (9,000 kg) of beef, 28,000 eggs, 8,000 gallons (30,000 L) of ice cream, and 18,000 slices of pizza in a week.[citation needed]

Other on-board facilities

Most modern cruise ships feature the following facilities:

  • Casino - Only open when the ship is in open sea
  • Spa
  • Fitness centre
  • Shops
  • Library
  • Theatre with Broadway style shows
  • Cinema
  • Indoor and/or outdoor swimming pool
  • Hot tub
  • Buffet restaurant
  • Lounges
  • Gym

Some ships have bowling alleys, ice skating rinks, rock climbing walls, video arcades, basketball courts, or tennis courts.

Ship naming

Many older cruise ships have had multiple owners. Since each cruise line has its own livery and often a naming theme (for instance, ships of the Holland America Line have names ending in "-dam", e.g. MS Statendam, and Royal Caribbean's ships' names all end with "of the Seas", e.g. MS Freedom of the Seas, ships of Cunard Line have the title of "Queen", e.g. RMS Queen Mary 2), it is usual for the transfer of ownership to entail a refitting and a name change. Some ships have had a dozen or more identities.

Cruise ships utilization

Cruise ships and former liners often find employment in applications other than those for which they were built. A shortage of hotel accommodation for the 2004 Summer Olympics led to a plan to moor a number of cruise ships in Athens to provide tourist accommodation. On September 1, 2005, the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) contracted three Carnival Cruise Lines vessels to house Hurricane Katrina evacuees.[10]

Regional industries

File:Prince George Wharf in Nassau Harbor.jpg
Four ships at the cruise ship terminal in Nassau, The Bahamas

The number of cruise tourists worldwide in 2005 was estimated at some 14 million. The main region for cruising was North America (70% of cruises), where the Caribbean islands were the most popular destinations.

Next was Continental Europe (13%), where the fastest growing segment is cruises in the Baltic Sea.[11] The most visited Baltic ports are Copenhagen, St. Petersburg, Tallinn, Stockholm and Helsinki.[12] The seaport of St. Petersburg, the main Baltic port of call, received 426,500 passengers during the 2009 cruise season.[13]

According to 2008 CEMAR[14] statistics the Mediterranean cruise market is going through a fast and fundamental change; Italy has won prime position as a destination for European cruises, and destination for the whole of the Mediterranean basin. The most visited ports in Mediterranean Sea are Barcelona (Spain), Civitavecchia (Italy), Palma (Spain) and Venice (Italy).

Caribbean cruising industry

Nearly 9,000 passengers from three Carnival ships visiting St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands

The Caribbean cruising industry is a large and growing market, and currently the most popular. Cruising has grown from “an estimated 900,850 passengers in 1983 to 2.3 million passengers in 1993”.[15] Cruise lines operating in the Caribbean include Royal Caribbean International, Princess Cruises, Carnival Cruise Line, Celebrity Cruises, Disney Cruise Line, Holland America, P&O, Cunard, Crystal Cruises, and Norwegian Cruise Line. There are also smaller cruise lines that cater to a more intimate feeling among their guests. The three largest cruise operators are Carnival Corporation, Royal Caribbean International, and Star Cruises/Norwegian Cruise Lines.

Many of the American cruise lines in the Caribbean depart from ports in the United States, “nearly one-third of the cruises sailed out of Miami”.[15] Other cruise ships depart from Port Everglades (in Fort Lauderdale), Port Canaveral (approximately 45 miles (72 km) east of Orlando), New York, Tampa, Galveston, New Orleans, Cape Liberty, Baltimore, Charleston, Norfolk, Mobile, and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Many UK cruise lines base their ships out of Barbados for the Caribbean season, operating direct charter flights out of the UK and avoiding the sometimes lengthy delays at US immigration.

Cruises sailing in the Caribbean travel on itineraries depending on the port of departure and the length of the cruise. The busiest port of call is The Bahamas with “1.8 million cruise-ship arrivals in 1994”.[15] This is because its short distance from Florida is very convenient for both short and long cruises. The next most popular ports of call were “the US Virgin Islands (1.2 million), St. Maarten (718,553), Puerto Rico (680,195), the Cayman Islands (599,387), and Jamaica (595,036)”.[15] Other ports of call include: Belize City, Costa Maya, Cozumel, Antigua, Aruba, Grand Turk and Key West. It is also worthy to note that these figures are from 1994 and highly outdated, so although the same ports are at the forefront today, the figures are very diffrent. St. Thomas in the US Virgin Islands is particularly popular with US passengers because they get a second duty-free allowance to use on goods purchased there.

Many cruise lines also have stops at their own "private islands"—more truthfully, a private section of a Caribbean island. These private resorts are reserved exclusively for passengers of the respective cruise line using the location, and frequently offer features such as an Aqua Park, kayaking, snorkeling, parasailing, music, and private reservable cabanas. Typically, these private islands are in the Bahamas, although Royal Caribbean uses a beach in Haiti[16][17]


The construction market for cruise ships is dominated by three European and one Asian companies:

A large number of cruise ships have been built by other shipyards, but no other individual yard has reached the large numbers of built ships achieved by the four above. A handful of old ocean liners also remain in service as cruise ships. Despite the dominance of United States-based cruise ship operators and American clients in the industry, only one ship built in the United States, The Emerald, is still sailing.[citation needed]

Infections on cruise ships


Norovirus infections continue to be a problem on cruise ships. In 2002, there were 25 reported outbreaks, with 2,648 passengers becoming ill from the virus.[18] There have been a number of voyages where hundreds of passengers have become ill.[19][20][21][22] Outbreak investigations by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have shown that transmission among cruise ship passengers is almost wholly person-to-person; water supplies have never been implicated.[citation needed]


Other pathogens which are known to be a problem on board cruise ships include Legionella, the bacteria which causes Legionnaires' disease. Legionella can colonise the domestic water systems and whirlpool spas as well as cooling systems used on board. Legionella, and in particular the most virulent strain, Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, can cause infections when inhaled as an aerosol or aspirated. Infections are more common amongst those over 50, with smokers and others with pre-existing respiratory disease being particularly vulnerable. The demographic most commonly using cruise ships can be particularly vulnerable. A number of cases of Legionnaires' disease have been associated with cruise ships.[23][24][25]


Cruise Lines generally take security very seriously, particularly after several high profile incidents on cruise ships, including pirate attacks on Seabourn Spirit and MSC Melody.[26] As a result, cruise ships have put various security measures in place to prevent incidents, including LRADs to deter pirates, as well as CCTV, metal detectors and x-rays to prevent weapons and contraband onboard.[27]

In addition to these measures, passengers are often given a personal identification card, which must be shown in order to get on or off the ship. This of course prevents people boarding who are not entitled to do so, and also ensures the ship's crew are aware of who is on the ship.[28]

Environmental impact

"Cruise ships generate a number of waste streams that can result in discharges to the marine environment, including sewage, graywater, hazardous wastes, oily bilge water, ballast water, and solid waste. They also emit air pollutants to the air and water. These wastes, if not properly treated and disposed of, can be a significant source of pathogens, nutrients, and toxic substances with the potential to threaten human health and damage aquatic life. It is important, however, to keep these discharges in some perspective, because cruise ships represent a small — although highly visible — portion of the entire international shipping industry, and the waste streams described here are not unique to cruise ships. However, particular types of wastes, such as sewage, graywater, and solid waste, may be of greater concern for cruise ships relative to other seagoing vessels, because of the large numbers of passengers and crew that cruise ships carry and the large volumes of wastes that they produce. Further, because cruise ships tend to concentrate their activities in specific coastal areas and visit the same ports repeatedly (especially Florida, California, New York, Galveston, Seattle, and the waters of Alaska), their cumulative impact on a local scale could be significant, as can impacts of individual large-volume releases (either accidental or intentional)."[29]

See also


  1. [1]
  2. The ocean-going stretch limo - New Zealand Herald, Friday 16 February 2007
  3. Queen Mary 2 Cruises Cunard Retrieved 12th December 2009
  4. "Cruise Market Watch Announces 2010 Cruise Line Market Share and Revenue Projections". Cruise Market Watch. 2009-09-29. 
  5. "The ocean-going stretch limo". New Zealand Herald, 16 February 2007
  6. [2]
  7. Queen Mary 2 Cruises Cunard Retrieved 12th December 2009
  8. Best, Keilani (17 March 2010). "Cruise group celebrates growth of 'floating cities'". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 6C. 
  9. The Boston Globe, Royal Caribbean orders $1.24B cruise ship, 2009-02-10.
  10. $236 Million Cruise Ship Deal Criticized Washington Post, 2005-09-28
  11. "Cruise Baltic Status Report" (PDF). 2007. pp. 11.,1033)/Cruise_Baltic_status_report_Jan_07.pdf 
  12. "Helsinki port guide". 2008. 
  13. "St. Petersburg Times". 2009. 
  14. "Cemar 2008 report" (PDF). 2009. pp. 1. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Pattullo, Polly (1996-01-01). Last Resorts: The Cost of Tourism in the Caribbean. Monthly Review Press. pp. 156–158. ISBN 978-0853459774. 
  16. "Labadee, Haiti". Royal Caribbean International. 2007-11-12.;jsessionid=0000O4zZ-nGtPnts7anEiD2loVi:12hdhua36?portCode=LAB. 
  17. Princess Cays, Bahamas - Princess Cruises, Monday 12 November 2007
  18. "Sea Sick — Infection Outbreaks Challenge the Cruise Ship Experience". Water Quality and Health Council. 
  19. BBC news Nov 2006 - Virus-hit cruise ship ends voyage.
  20. BBC news Jan 2007 - Vomiting virus sweeps through QE2
  21. BBC news Nov 2003 - Bug-hit P & O liner Aurora heads for Gibraltar
  22. BBC news Feb 2003 - 250 taken ill on P&O cruise
  23. Cruise-Ship-Associated Legionnaires Disease, November 2003-May 2004
  25. "Legionnaires' fear on cruise ship". BBC News. 2007-07-30. Retrieved 2010-04-30. 
  26. Hooper, John (2009-04-26). "Italian cruise ship fends off pirates with gunfire". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  27. BBC News: 'I beat pirates with a hose and sonic cannon'
  28. Tightening cruise ships’ security: State of access control solutions onboard passenger ships
  29. Copeland, Claudia. "Cruise Ship Pollution: Background, Laws and Regulations, and Key Issues" (Order Code RL32450). Congressional Research Service (Updated February 6, 2008). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.


  • Douglas Ward, Berlitz Ocean Cruising and Cruise Ships, published annually
  • Monarchs of the Sea: The Great Ocean Liners; Ulrich, Kurt; Tausir Parke; 1999; ISBN 1-86064-373-6

External links

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[[Commons: Category:Cruise ships

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