|Esmeralda in Pearl Harbor, 2006|
Esmeralda in Pearl Harbor, 2006
|Launched:||May 12, 1953|
|Nickname:||La Dama Blanca (The White Lady)|
|Length:||113 m (371 ft)|
|Beam:||13.11 m (43 ft)|
|Height:||48.5 m (159 ft)|
|Draft:||7 m (23 ft)|
|Sail plan:||four-masted barquentine; 21 sails, total sail area of 2,870 m² (30,892 sq. ft.)|
|Speed:||max 13 knots engine, 17.5 knots sail|
|Complement:||300 sailors, 90 midshipmen|
|Armament:||2 × 57 mm ceremonial gun mounts|
Esmeralda (BE-43) is a steel-hulled four-masted barquentine tall ship of the Chilean Navy, currently the second tallest and longest sailing ship in the world which was used as a jail and torture center during the regime of Augusto Pinochet.
The ship is the sixth to carry the name Esmeralda. The first was the frigate Esmeralda captured from the Spanish at Callao, Peru, by Admiral Lord Thomas Alexander Cochrane of the Chilean Navy, in a bold incursion on the night of 5 November 1820. The second was the corvette Esmeralda of the Chilean Navy which, set against superior forces, fought until sunk with colors flying on 21 May 1879 at the Battle of Iquique. These events mark important milestones for the Chilean Navy and the ship's name is said to evoke its values of courage and sacrifice.
Construction began in Cádiz, Spain, in 1946. She was intended to become Spain's national training ship. During her construction in 1947 the yard in which she was being built suffered catastrophic explosions, which damaged the ship and placed the yard on the brink of bankruptcy. Work on the ship was temporarily halted. In 1950 Chile and Spain entered into negotiations in which Spain offered to repay debts incurred to Chile as a result of the Spanish Civil War in the form of manufactured products, including the not yet completed Esmeralda. Chile accepted the offer and the ship was formally transferred to the ownership of Chile in 1951. Work then continued on the ship. She was finally launched on 12 May 1953 before an audience of 5,000 people. She was christened by Mrs. Raquel Vicuña de Orrego using a bottle wrapped in the national colors of Spain and Chile. She was delivered as a four-masted topsail schooner to the Government of Chile on 15 June 1954, Captain Horacio Cornejo Tagle in command.
Her sister ship is the training ship for the Spanish Navy, the four-masted topsail schooner Juan Sebastián Elcano. Sometime in the 1970s Esmeralda's rigging was changed to a four-masted barquentine by replacing the fore gaffsail (course sail) by two main staysails. The third (top) main staysail is still in place. She has now five staysails, three topsails, six jibbs, three course gaff sails, four square sails, 21 all in all.
Her first voyage was to the Canary Islands and then on to New Orleans, where a distillation plant was installed. She then proceeded through the Panama Canal and arrived at Valparaíso on 1 September 1954 to much fanfare.
Since her commissioning, Esmeralda has been a training ship for the Chilean Navy. She has visited more than 300 ports worldwide acting as a floating embassy for Chile. She participated in Operation Sail at New York in 1964, 1976 and 1986, and the Osaka World Sail in 1983. She also participated in International Regattas of Sail in 1964, 1976, 1982 and 1990 winning the coveted Cutty Sark Trophy in the last two participations.
Reports from Amnesty International, the US Senate and Chilean Truth and Reconciliation Commission describe the ship as a kind of a floating jail and torture chamber for political prisoners of the Augusto Pinochet regime from 1973 to 1980. It is claimed that probably over a hundred persons were kept there at times and subjected to hideous treatment , among them British priest Michael Woodward, who later died as a result of torture.
- ^ Esmeralda: The torture ship Archived former site of a committee led by Germán F. Westphal, a former Chilean political prisoner and a professor at the University of Maryland in the United States. They believe the ship should not be allowed in ports as long as the crimes remain unpunished. Last updated 15 March 2006.
- ^ Niegan libertad en crimen de sacerdote en la Esmeralda, La Nación, 3 May 2008.(Spanish)
- Length: 113 meters
- Beam: 13.11 meters
- Maximum draught: 7 meters
- Stanchion: 8.7 meters
- Gunwale height: 5.3 meters
- Maximum displacement: 3,673 tons
- Maximum engine speed: 13 knots
- Maximum sail speed: 17.5 knots
- Armament: 2 × 57 mm ceremonial gun mounts
- Crew: 300 sailors, 90 midshipmen
- Sails: 21 total with a sail area of 2,870 m², on four masts
- Mast height: 48.5 meters
- Report of the Chilean National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation (English translation of the Rettig report, PDF file)
| Esmeralda (BE-43)]]
- "Esmeralda" website
- Documentary film The Dark Side of the White Lady
- Virtual Tour on 360° of Esmeralda Chilexplora.com