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The Empire ships were a series of ships in the service of the British Government. Their names were all prefixed with "Empire". Mostly they were used during World War II by the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT), who owned the ships but contracted out their management to various shipping lines. Some ships requisitioned during the Suez Crisis were also given the Empire prefix. They were acquired from a number of sources. Many were built for the MoWT, others obtained from the USA, still others were captured or seized from enemy powers.
- 1 Introduction of standard specifications
- 2 Types of ships built for the MOWT
- 2.1 Tramps
- 2.2 Tankers
- 2.3 Aircraft Carriers
- 2.4 Fast cargo liners
- 2.5 Heavy Lift Ships
- 2.6 Scandinavian type cargo ships
- 2.7 Colliers
- 2.8 Dry cargo coasters
- 2.9 Coastal tankers
- 2.10 Tugs
- 2.11 Dredgers and hoppers
- 2.12 Tank landing ships
- 2.13 Ferries
- 2.14 Water carriers
- 2.15 Ore carriers
- 2.16 Convoy rescue ships
- 3 Service
- 4 Losses and disposal of Empire ships
- 5 Survivors
- 6 Notes
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Introduction of standard specifications
Britain entered World War II on the 3 September 1939, however, significantly before the declaration of war, preparations were in hand to put the shipping industry of Britain on a war footing. All shipbuilders had specified the capability of their yards to produce cargo ships, cargo liners, tramps, tankers, colliers, coasters and naval ships. The Ministry of Shipping, formed in October 1939 quickly adopted a standard naming system, applying the prefix Empire for all merchant ships built in Great Britain for the Government. With some exceptions, the prefix was also extended to purchased or requisitions ships and to those acquired as prizes.
From 1 February 1940, the Admiralty took control of all shipbuilding and repairs, including merchant shipping. From that date, ships could only be built either on orders of the Admiralty or, for private owners, under licences that required the ships to be built to admiralty specifications of wartime requirements.
Types of ships built for the MOWT
Tramp ships were built to a standardised prefabricated design. The ships were 425 feet (129.54 m) in length with a beam of 56 feet (17.07 m), with a deadweight of around 10,000 tons and a speed of around 10 knots (19 km/h). The first standard to be used was the PF(B) of approximately 7,050 gross tons. These incorporated one 30-ton, two 10-ton and eight 5-ton derricks for cargo handling.
The PF(C) design was introduced in 1942 to handle heavier military equipment, and was equipped with one 50-ton, one 30-ton, five 10-ton and five 5-ton derricks. PF(C) were around 7,320 gross tons. The later PF(D) was similar to PF(C), at 7,370 tons, but could be distinguished by a full height poop (which was only half height in the PF(C)). Some had 250,000 cubic feet (7,100 m3) of refrigerated space.
The 'Ocean' type tankers were sometimes known as the 'Three twelves type', being about 12,000 tons deadweight with a speed of around 12 knots (22 km/h) and a fuel consumption of 12 tons per day. They were used for the transport of fuel and also for refuelling at sea. Some were fitted with triple expansion steam engines; others were diesel powered.
The 'Norwegian' type were slightly larger and were constructed only by two builders, Sir James Laing & Sones (who had built the prototype) and by Furness Shipbuilding Co, Ltd. The first of the type were fitted with 3,800 horsepower (2,800 kW) triple expansion steam engines, later models with 3,300 horsepower (2,500 kW) diesel engines and finally with 4,000 horsepower (3,000 kW) diesel engines.
The design for the 'Wave' prefixed faster tankers was introduced in 1943. With a speed of 15 knots (28 km/h), these fast tankers were able to operate outside of the convoys.
Catapult-Armed Merchantmen or CAM ships, were merchant cargo ships operating with the convoys and converted to launch a Sea Hurricane fighter by means of a catapult. As there was no means to land the Hurricane on the ship again, it was only possible for a single launch and the aircraft then had to return to land or ditch in the sea. However they did provide important convoy cover when no other air cover was available. Eight requisitioned private ships and twenty-seven Empire ships served as CAM ships. Ten of the Empire ships were lost in service.
Merchant aircraft carriers or MAC ships superseded the CAM ships. Their role was defensive in protection of the convoys. Unlike the CAM ships, they carried a flight deck so the aircraft were able to land again. The merchant air carriers were adapted standard grain ships or oil tankers. The grain ships had a flight deck of 413 feet (125.88 m) to 424 feet (129.24 m) ft and a breadth of 62 feet (18.90 m). A hangar on the lower deck was equipped with a lift to the flight deck and accommodated four Fairey Swordfish aircraft. The oil tankers had longer flight decks - 461 feet (140.51 m) - but no hangars. Three Swordfish reconnaissance planes were stowed at the aft end of the flight deck.
Fast cargo liners
In the early part of the war shipyard capacity was fully engaged with naval ships, including aircraft carriers, repairs to ships following Dunkirk and in orders for tankers and tramps. By 1941 there was criticism that ships being built were too slow. A few fast ships (capable of 15-16 knots) were however being built; many of them with refrigerated capacity . In 1942 a new standard for a fast cargo liner of around 9,900 gross tons was introduced with a length of 475 feet (144.78 m) and a breadth of 64 feet (19.51 m). Thirteen Empire-prefixed standard class cargo liners were completed. Another was laid down intending to be given the prefix but was acquired by the Royal Netherlands Government and completed as Modjokerto.
- Non-standard cargo liners: Empire Gala (transferred on completion to Gouvernement Generale de L'Indo Chine), Empire Pride (converted to a troopship in the shipyard), Empire Song and Empire Trust.
- Refrigerated cargo liners: Empire Abercorn, Empire Clarendon, Empire Grace, Empire Hope, Empire Might, Empire Star (originally laid down as Empire Mercia), Empire Wessex (completed as Port Hobart in 1946) and Empire Wisdom .
- 1942 onwards, Standard fast cargo liners (9,900 gross tons): Empire Allenby, Empire Captain, Empire Chieftain, Empire Dynasty, Empire Haig, Empire Joy, Empire Kitchener, Empire Life, Empire Paragon, Empire Regent, Empire Rawlinson and Empire Wilson.
Heavy Lift Ships
The design of the heavy lift ship was based on a Norwegian design with a prefix - Bel- (Belmoira and Belpareil were two of this type) intended to carry bulky and heavy cargo such as locomotives and tugs. The ships had three large unobstructed cargo holds and heavy lifting equipment. The first pair of ships built for the Ministry of War Transport, Empire Charmian and Empire Elaine were diesel powered. The remainder, Empire Admiral, Empire Athelstan, Empire Byng, Empire Canute, Empire Ethelbert (launched as Beljeanne in 1946), Empire Marshal, Empire Viceroy and Empire Wallace, were powered by steam turbines to provide more speed and power. These ships were able to carry smaller vessels, such as tugs and landing craft, to support combat operations around the world.
Two classes of ship were based on the Scandinavian design general cargo ship. The smaller 'three island' type of around 2,800 gross tons were built between 1941 and 1944. These vessels played an important role as crane ships in unloading the Arctic convoys at the Russian ports. In the three island class, the boiler was amidships and the cargo handling was grouped around three 'islands' on the superstructure, at the stern, bow and amidships. Ten ships were built in the later and larger (3,500 gross tons) Empire Malta class, which had the boiler aft and the cargo handling grouped around the fore- and main-mast.
- Three Island Type: Empire Bard, Empire Beaconsfield, Empire Boswell, Empire Buttress, Empire Candida, Empire Carey, Empire Caxton, Empire Crusoe, Empire Dirk, Empire Dunstan, Empire Elgar, Empire Gareth, Empire Gulliver, Empire Harcourt, Empire Harmony, Empire Jessica, Empire Launcelot, Empire Lorenzo, Empire Melody Empire Mountain, Empire Newcomen, Empire Osborne, Empire Patriot, Empire Pilgrim, Empire Ransom, Empire Record, Empire Seaman, Empire Sedley, Empire Tennyson, 'Empire Thackeray, Empire Toiler, Empire Valour, Empire Warner and Empire Wolfe.
- Empire Malta Class: Empire Aldgate, Empire Barbados, Empire Bermuda, Empire Caicos, Empire Jamaica, Empire Labrador, Empire Malta, Empire Newfoundland, Empire Perlis and Empire Southwark 
Dry cargo coasters
Empire Rita and Empire Plane were both tugs skippered by Captain Frank Trainer for the Ministry of Defense during the war. The tug Empire Madge was renamed Weasel in 1947.
Dredgers and hoppers
Dredging and hopper vessels were used for the collection or discharge of aggregates for example in maintaining clear navigation channels and to acquire aggregates from the sea bed.
- Twin screw hopper dredgers: approx 2,600 Gross tons, length 285 feet (86.87 m) breadth 52 feet (15.85 m): Empire Forager and Empire Sorcerer
- Suction hopper drdger - 1,747 gross tons, length 256 feet (78.03 m), breadth 42 feet (12.80 m): Empire Clydesdale
- Bucket dredger - 938 gross tons, length 195 feet (59.44 m), breadth 40 feet (12.19 m): Empire Mammoth
- Twin screw Hopper with bottom doors - 683 Gross tons, length 167 feet (50.90 m) breadth 33 feet (10.06 m): Empire Dockland, Empire Downland, Empire Grassland, Empire Hartland, Empire Heathland, Empire Marshland, Empire Portland, Empire Upland and Empire Woodland
- Bucket dredger - 512 Gross tons, length 160 feet (48.77 m) breadth 36 feet (10.97 m):Empire Champion, Empire Conjuror, Empire Moorland and Empire Sandboy
Tank landing ships
The tank landing ships (LST (Mark 3)) had a speed of eleven knots and were 4,820 tons when loaded. The length was 330 ft and the breadth 54 ft. The bridge and engines were aft. A bow ramp gave access to the interior and onto the open upper deck. 168 troops could be accommodated in narrow dormitories. Landing craft were generally only identified by number (for example LST 3512). However, some were completed as merchant ships after the end of hostilities. Seven were charted from the Ministry of War Transport as ferries and give the Empire prefix, operating between Tilbury and Hamburg from September 1946 and also between Preston and Larne from May 1948.
- Empire Baltic, Empire Cedric, Empire Celtic, Empire Cymric, Empire Doric, Empire Gaelic, Empire Nordic
- Empire Curlew, Empire Fulmar, Empire Gannet, Empire Grebe, Empire Guillemot, Empire Gull, Empire Kittiwake, Empire Petrel, Empire Puffin, Empire Shearwater, Empire Skua and Empire Tern
Three Empire ferries (Empire Chub, Empire Dace and Empire Roach), were completed to the same design as an order from the Government of Turkey. They had ramps at both ends and could carry passengers and vehicles but could also be converted for minelaying. They were also eqipped with a 25-ton derrick at the front of the superstructure amidships. They were 716 gross tons, length 179 feet (54.56 m) and breadth 40 feet (12.19 m).
Convoy rescue ships
Five Castle class corvettes were completed as Empire Convoy rescue ships to join twenty-nine previously requisitioned ships. The requisitioned passenger ships had a speed of 11 to 12 knots to enable them to catch up with the convoys travelling at 10 knots after completing their rescue operations. Convoy Rescue ships were also generally armed with AA guns for protection when they were separated from the convoy and vulnerable to enemy attack. The five Empire ships were 1,333 gross tons, length 236 feet (71.93 m), breadth 36 feet (10.97 m) with a speed of sixteen and a half knots. After the war they were used as troopships in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Empire ships were generally involved in convoy duty, including the Atlantic convoys bringing essential supplies from the United States; military convoys to North Africa; military convoys around the Cape of Good Hope to prosecute the war in the Middle East; coastal convoys around the shores of Britain; Mediterranean convoys, including those supporting the defence of Malta and Arctic convoys to North Russia.
They took an active role supporting the invasions of North Africa, Sicily and Italy and in the Normandy assault and in the assaults on German-held ports of Western Europe. In June 1944. ninety-seven Empire merchant ships were involved in the cross-channel convoys that carried troops and supplies ready for the Normandy invasion. Empire landing craft were involved in the assault phase, and Empire coasters were involved in the beaching of supplies and in ferrying cargo from the larger merchant ships anchored off-shore.
The success of the Normandy invasion depended on the successful construction of the Mulberry ports. These were prefabricated ports, constructed at Southampton, Gosport, Portsmouth, Tilbury Docks, and even as far north as Birkenhead and Hartlepool. Two hundred tugs then took three months to tow the components of the harbours from where they were constructed to assembly areas on the South Coast. Between 7 June 1945 and the end of July, the tugs towed the materials across the channel to Normandy.
Before D-Day, sixty old merchant ships and four old warships were selected as blockships, to be scuttled in a line to give protection to the small craft. The blockships were stripped before setting out in convoy across the channel. Empire tugs were used to ensure the safe crossing. On reaching Normandy they were scuttled in five groups, codenamed Gooseberry 1 to Gooseberry 5. Gooseberry 4 at Juno Beach included four Empire ships: Empire Bunting, Empire Flamingo, Empire Moorhen and Empire Waterhen. Gooseberry 5 at Ouistreham included three Empire ships: Empire Defiance, Empire Tamar and Empire Tana. Between the 19 and 23 June 1944 a severe gale, damaged many of the Mulberry harbours and wrecked some of the blockships. Additional blockships were added in July 1944, including one more Empire ship, Empire Bittern, and two of the former Empire ships that had been transferred to the Norwegians: Norfalk (formerly Empire Kittiwake) and Norjerv (formerly Empire Eagle).
Post war service
At the end of the war, tankers were released from requisition as they completed voyages ater 31 December 1945 and dry cargo ships after voyages completed after 2 March 1946. However passenger and troopships were still involved in the repatriation of servicemen, prisoners of war and refugees. The government therefore converted several captured German passenger ships to Empire troop ships. These included Empire Fowey, Empire Halladale, Empire Ken, Empire Orwell, Empire Trooper and Empire Windrush.
Empire Comfort, Empire Lifeguard, Empire Peacemaker and Empire Shelter were smaller troopships operating in the Mediterranean Sea; Empire Parkeston and Empire Wansbeck operated as troopships between Harwich and the Hook of Holland.
Losses and disposal of Empire ships
In 1942, shipowners who had lost ships (either as a casualty of war or requisioned by the Government) during the war, were able to buy ships built for the Government. Such ships were then managed by the shipowner on behalf of the Ministry of War Transport, until the end of the war. Tramps and colliers built before 1942 were sold on in this way, although some smaller ships remained unsold.
Empire ships were also transferred to the representatives of governments of countries that had been invaded by Germany, in recognition of the losses suffered by the fleets of Britain's allies.
Ships transferred to other governments
- Transferred in 1941: Empire Lapwing
- Transferred in 1942: Empire Albatross, Empire Drayton, Empire Masefield, Empire Swan and Empire Selwyn.
- Transferred in 1943: Empire Ballantyne, Empire Centaur, Empire Claymore and Empire Launcelot
- Transferred in 1942: Empire Boy, Empire Deep, Empire Halley, Empire Mavis, Empire Penguin, Empire Raleigh, Empire Rennie, Empire Robin and Empire Trust
- Transferred in 1943: Empire Courage, Empire Dyke, Empire Ford, Empire Fortune, Empire Galliard, Empire Hazlitt, Empire Iseult, Empire Reynard, Empire River, Empire Ruskin, Empire Sidney, Empire Sound, Empire Spray and Empire Toiler
- Transferred in 1944: Empire Kamal and Empire Fletcher
- Transferred in 1945: Empire Ribble
- Transferred in 1946: Empire Concrete, Empire Condee, Empire Lily
Twenty-four Empire ships were purchased by the French Government after liberation in 1945. All were transferred in 1945-46. Empire Gala and Empire Jupiter were later placed with the Gouvernement Generale de L'Indo-Chine, along with Ten Park-type Canadian built ships.
- Empire Bute, Empire Cadet, Empire Call, Empire Crown, Empire Dorrit, Empire Driver, Empire Duke, Empire Falstaff, Empire Farmer, Empire Friendship, Empire Gala, Empire Gillian, Empire Jessica, Empire Jupiter, Empire Mull, Empire Outpost, Empire Rawlinson, Empire Sceptre, Empire Sedley, Empire Stronghold, Empire Symbol, Empire Traveller, Empire Unicorn and Empire Welfare
Nineteen Empire ships were transferred to the Norwegian Government in 1941-1942.
- Empire Beaver, Empire Carey, Empire Diamond, Empire Druid, Empire Dunlin, Empire Eagle, Empire Elk, Empire Fairbairn, Empire Field, Empire Grenfell, Empire Kittiwake, Empire Latimer, Empire Onyx, Empire Pearl, Empire Penn, Empire Pict, Empire Pilgrim, Empire Ptarmigan and Empire Saxon.
Transferred to the Norwegian Government in 1946.
Three Empire ships and a number of American ships were built or transferred to the Polish Government in 1942-1943.
A number of Empire ships were transferred to the Soviet Union during and after the war.
Transferred in 1944: Empire Nigel
Transferred in 1946: Empire Ayr, Empire Conclyde, Empire Concord, Empire Confederation, Empire Congleton, Empire Congreve, Empire Conisborough, Empire Conleven, Empire Connah, Empire Connaught, Empire Connemara, Empire Consett, Empire Constable, Empire Constellation, Empire Contees, Empire Contest, Empire Convention, Empire Conway, Empire Conwear, Empire Dart, Empire Dee, Empire Douglas, Empire Dovey, Empire Durant, Empire Forth, Empire Gable, Empire Gabon, Empire Gage, Empire Gala, Empire Galashiels, Empire Galaxy, Empire Galleon, Empire Gallic, Empire Galveston, Empire Gantry, Empire Garner, Empire Kennet, Empire Lea, Empire Neath, Empire Nidd, Empire Ock, Empire Ock, Empire Orwell, Empire Tageland, Empire Tageos, Empire Tarne, Empire Tegaden, Empire Tegados, Empire Tegaica, Empire Tegalta, Empire Tegamas, Empire Tegleone, Empire Tegoria, Empire Teguda, Empire Teguto, Empire Teme, Empire Teviot, Empire Tigarth, Empire Tigbart, Empire Tigina, Empire Tigombo, Empire Tigonto, Empire Tigost, Empire Tigouver, Empire Venture, Empire Viking I, Empire Viking II, Empire Viking III, Empire Viking VI, Empire Viking VIII, Empire Viking IX, Empire Viking X, Empire Weaver, Empire Welland, Empire Wey, Empire Yare
Transferred in 1947: Empire Cherwell
One hundred and eighty two Empire ships were lost through enemy action, including to mines, submarines, enemy aircraft, E-boats and blockships. The first lost was Empire Commerce in 1940 and the last was Empire Gold in 1945. Eight Empire ships were sacrificed as blockships to support the Normandy invasion. Some of the blockships were later raised and scrapped.
In 1946 numerous of the British-built Empire ships, as well as ex-German prize ships were offered for sale or for three- or five-year charter.
At least two Empire ships survive today. Empire Sandy, built as a tug, has been converted to a schooner and is active on the Great Lakes. The ST Cervia, a tug built as Empire Raymond is preserved as a museum ship at Ramsgate, Kent. A recent survivor was ST Sea Alarm, formerly Empire Ash, which was controversially scrapped in 1998. The tug Laut Sawu (ex-Empire Humphrey) was still in active service in Indonesia in 2004. The tug Poetto (ex-Empire Stella) was still in service in Italy in 2004.
- Empire Sandy.jpg
- ST Cervia.jpg
ST Cervia, ex Empire Raymond
- Sea Alarm.jpg
ST Sea Alarm, ex Empire Ash
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) pp 1-2
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) p15
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) pp134-137
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) pp165-167
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) pp167-178
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) pp179-188
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) pp189-193
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) pp195-202
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) pp202-204
- the second ship to carry the name, the former being torpedoed in 1942
- Mitchell, W H, and Sawyer, L A (1990). The Empire Ships. London, New York, Hamburg, Hong Kong: Lloyd's of London Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85044-275-4.
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) p304
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) p310
- Steam Tug "Cervia"
- Mitchell and Sawyer (1990) p316
- House of Commons Select Committee on Welsh Affairs (1998)
- "William Watkins Ltd, managed tugs". Thames Tugs. http://www.thamestugs.co.uk/MANAGED-TUGS.php. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
- Mitchell, W H, and Sawyer, L A (1990). The Empire Ships. London, New York, Hamburg, Hong Kong: Lloyd's of London Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85044-275-4.
- "House of Commons Select Committee on Welsh Affairs; Minutes of Evidence". London: UK Parliament. 26 October 1998. doi:cm199899/cmselect/cmwelaf/258/8102609. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199899/cmselect/cmwelaf/258/8102609.htm. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
- "Steam Tug "Cervia"". Canterbury, Kent: The Steam Museum. http://www.thesteammuseum.org/cervia.html. Retrieved 9 November 2009.