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A schooner (pronounced /ˈskuːnər/) is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts with the forward mast being no taller than the rear masts. Schooners were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century, and further developed in North America from the early 18th century.
According to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, the first vessel called a schooner was built by builder Andrew Robinson and launched in 1713 from Gloucester, Massachusetts. Legend has it that the name was the result of a spectator exclaiming "Oh how she scoons", scoon being a Scots word meaning to skip or skim over the water. Robinson replied, "A schooner let her be." According to Walter William Skeat, the term schooner comes from scoon, while the sch spelling comes from the later adoption of the Dutch and German spellings ("Schoner").
The schooner sail-plan has two or more masts with the forward mast being shorter or the same height as the rear masts. Most traditionally rigged schooners are gaff rigged, sometimes carrying a square topsail on the foremast and, occasionally, a square fore-course (together with the gaff foresail). Schooners carrying square sails are called square-topsail schooners.
Modern schooners may be Marconi also known as Bermuda, rigged. In Bermuda, such schooners had appeared by the early 19th century, and were known as 'Ballyhoo schooners'. Some Bermudian schooners of this period are historically referred to as Bermuda sloops, despite having a schooner rig. Some schooner yachts are Bermuda rigged on the mainmast and gaff rigged on the foremast.
A staysail schooner has no foresail, but instead carries a main staysail between the masts in addition to the fore staysail ahead of the foremast. A staysail or gaff topsail schooner may carry a fisherman's staysail (a four-sided fore-and-aft sail) above the main staysail or foresail, or a triangular mule. Multi-masted staysail schooners usually carried a mule above each stay sail except the fore staysail. Gaff-rigged schooners generally carry a triangular fore-and-aft topsail above the gaff sail on the main topmast and sometimes also on the fore topmast (see illustration), called a gaff-topsail schooner. A gaff-rigged schooner that is not set up to carry one or more gaff topsails is sometimes termed a "bare-headed" or "bald-headed" schooner. A schooner with no bowsprit is known as a "knockabout" schooner. It may also be described as "cat-rigged."
The schooner may be distinguished from the ketch by the placement of the mainsail. On the ketch, the mainsail is flown from the most forward mast; thus it is the main-mast, and the other mast is the mizzen-mast. A two-masted schooner has the mainsail on the aft mast, and therefore the other mast is the fore-mast.
Schooners were more widely used in the United States than in any other country. Two masted schooners were and are most common. They were popular in trades that required speed and windward ability, such as slaving, privateering, blockade running and offshore fishing. They also came to be favoured as pilot vessels, both in the United States and in Northern Europe. In the Chesapeake Bay area several distinctive schooner types evolved, including the Baltimore clipper and the pungy.
There was no set number of masts for a schooner. A small schooner has two or three masts, but they were built with as many as six (e.g. the wooden six-masted Wyoming) or seven masts to carry a larger volume of cargo. The only seven-masted (steel hulled) schooner, the Thomas W. Lawson, was built in 1902, with a length of 395 ft (120 m), the top of the tallest mast being 155 feet (47 m) above deck, and carrying 25 sails with 43,000 sq ft (4,000 m2) of total sail area. A two or three masted schooner is quite maneuverable and can be sailed by a smaller crew than some other sailing vessels. The larger multi-masted schooners were somewhat unmanageable and the rig was largely a cost-cutting measure introduced towards the end of the days of sail.
Essex, Massachusetts was the most significant shipbuilding center for schooners.. By the 1850s, over 50 vessels a year were being launched from 15 shipyards and Essex became recognized worldwide as North America’s center for fishing schooner construction. In total, Essex launched over 4,000 schooners, most headed for the Gloucester, Massachusetts fishing industry. Bath, Maine was another notable center, which during much of the nineteenth century had more than a dozen yards working at a time, and from 1781 to 1892 launched 1352 schooners, including the Wyoming.
Schooners were used to carry cargo in many different environments, from ocean voyages to coastal runs and on large inland bodies of water. They were popular in North America, and in their heyday during the late 19th century over 2,000 schooners carried cargo back and forth across the Great Lakes. Three-masted "terns" were a favourite rig of Canada's Maritime Provinces. The scow schooner, which used a schooner rig on a flat-bottomed, blunt-ended scow hull, was popular in North America for coastal and river transport.
- Charming Betsy, the namesake of a famous canon of statutory interpretation.
- Effie M. Morrissey, now Ernestina, the only surviving sailing transatlantic packet schooner to carry immigrants to America
- America, namesake of the America's Cup
- La Amistad, the site of a famous slave revolt
- Bluenose, a Canadian racing and fishing vessel
- Clotilde, the last ship to bring African slaves to the United States
- HMS Halifax, built as Nova Scotia Packet in 1765, well documented early colonial schooner.
- USS Hannah, the first armed American naval vessel
- Separación Dominicana, the first armed Dominican naval vessel
- Hispaniola from Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island
- Liverpool Packet, a famous Nova Scotian privateer schooner
- HMS Pickle, carried the news of Nelson's victory and death at Trafalgar back to Britain
- Pride of Baltimore, a Baltimore clipper recreation sunk in a white squall
- Thomas W. Lawson, the only seven-masted schooner ever built
- We're Here, from Rudyard Kipling's book, Captains Courageous
- Wyoming, the largest wooden schooner ever built
German former pilot schooner Atalanta
- Pacific Grace 1.JPG
Canadian schooner, Pacific Grace, 2001
Two-masted fishing schooner
- SSAmphitrite bearbeitet.jpg
Amphitrite, the world's oldest seagoing yacht
- Schooner Linden.jpg
Finnish schooner Linden
- Regina Maris.JPG
Dutch three-master Regina Maris
- Spirit of Bermuda.jpg
Spirit of Bermuda, a Bermuda rigged schooner
- La Recouvrance.JPG
French topsail schooner La Recouvrance
Topsail schooner Pride of Baltimore II
- FS Etoile.jpg
French Navy two-masted schooner Étoile
US topsail schooner Californian
- Babson, John. History of the Town of Gloucester, Cape Ann, including the town of Rockport. 1860. p. 251–252.
- Merriam-Webster: schooner
- Dictionary.com: schooner
- http://www.essexshipbuildingmuseum.org/shipbldg.html has information about shipbuilding in Essex
- Reed, Parker McCobb. History of Bath and environs, Sagadahoc County, Maine: 1607–1894. Portland, Maine: Lakeside Press, 1894. page 179.
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