|Name:||CSS Manassas; originally Enoch Train|
|Owner:||Boston Steam Tow-Boat Co. |
|Builder:||J.O. Curtis, Medford, MA|
|Launched:||1853  or 1855|
|Commissioned:||September 12, 1861|
|Decommissioned:||April 24, 1862|
|Fate:||Sunk in battle April 24, 1862|
|Class and type:||Steam tug , Ironclad|
|Tons burthen:||384 1/2 tons |
|Length:||143 ft (44 m)|
|Beam:||33 ft (10 m)|
|Draft:||17 ft (5.2 m)|
|Complement:||36 officers and men|
|Armament:||1 64-pounder Dahlgren, later replaced by 1 32-pounder|
CSS Manassas, formerly the steam icebreaker Enoch Train, was built at Medford, Massachusetts, by J. O. Curtis in 1855. A New Orleans commission merchant, Captain John A. Stevenson, acquired her for use as a privateer after she was captured by the privateer, later gunboat, CSS Ivy and fitted her out at Algiers, Louisiana as an ironclad ram of radically modern design. Covered with 1½-inch iron plating, her hull projected only 2½ feet above the water, and her plated top was convex causing cannon shot to glance off harmlessly. She was provided with sharp irons on her bow to stave holes through enemy vessels. Fast moving, lying low in the water and a difficult target, virtually bomb-proof, she looked like a floating cigar or egg shell and was described by Union intelligence as a "hellish machine.":68-9
Commissioned as a Confederate privateer on September 12, 1861, Manassas was seized soon afterwards by Flag Officer G. N. Rollins, CSN, for use in the lower Mississippi River. With Lieutenant A. F. Warley, CSN, in command she participated in Flag Officer Rollins' surprise attack on the Federal blockading squadron at Head of Passes, the action being known as the Battle of the Head of Passes, on October 12, 1861. In the action Manassas violently rammed USS Richmond, damaging her severely below the water line. Manassas, however, suffered the loss of her prow and smokestack and had her engines temporarily thrown out of gear from the impact. She managed to retire under heavy fire from USS Preble and Richmond whose shells glanced off her armor. Two months after this engagement, Manassas was purchased for direct ownership by the Confederate Government.
Under Lieutenant Warley, Manassas joined the force of Captain John K. Mitchell, CSN, commanding Confederate naval forces in the lower Mississippi. She participated in the Battle of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, during which Commodore David Farragut, USN, on his way to New Orleans, ran his fleet past the Confederate forts of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip. In the action Manassas attempted to ram USS Pensacola, which turned in time to avoid the blow and deliver a broadside at close range. Manassas then ran into murderous fire from the whole line of the Union fleet. She then charged USS Mississippi and delivered a long glancing blow on her hull, firing her only gun as she rammed. Next she rammed USS Brooklyn, again firing her gun, and injuring her rather deeply, but not quite enough to be fatal.
After this action Manassas followed the Union fleet quietly for a while, but as she drew closer Mississippi furiously turned on her. Manassas managed to dodge the blow but was run aground. Her crew escaped as Mississippi poured her heavy broadsides into the stranded Confederate vessel. Later Manassas slipped off the bank and drifted down the river in flames past the Union mortar flotilla. Commander David Dixon Porter, USN, in command of the mortar boats, tried to save her as an engineering curiosity, but Manassas exploded and immediately plunged under water.
Years after the war In "Battles and Leaders of the Civil War" Vol 2.p.267 there was a claim that a Manassas crewman was knocked off the ironclad by a Union sailor; however the CSS Manassas Captain Lt. A. F. Warley reported no casualties among his crew.
- Abbreviations used in these notes
- Official atlas: Atlas to accompany the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.
- ORA (Official records, armies): War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate Armies.
- ORN (Official records, navies): Official records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion.
- Gleason, Hall (1937). Old Ships and Ship-Building Days of Medford. Medford, MA: J.C. Miller. p. 77.
- ORN I, v. 18, p. 131.
- Hearn, Chester G. (1995). The Capture of New Orleans 1862. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-1945-8.
- Hearn, pp. 86-91.
- Hearn, pp. 210-35.
- Hearn, pp. 235-6.