SS Irish Oak (1919)

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Irish Oak. Oil by Kennneth King from the National Maritime Museum of Ireland
Oil painting by Kennneth King depicting the moments after SS Irish Oak was torpedoed. The first lifeboat has just been lowered. National Maritime Museum of Ireland
Name: West Neris (1919-41)
Irish Oak (1941-43)
Owner: United States Maritime Commission (1919-28)
Mississippi Shipping Company (1928-33)
United States Shipping Board (1933-35)
United States Shipping Board Bureau (1935-37)
United States Maritime Commission (1937-43)
Operator: United States Shipping Board (1919-28)
Mississippi Shipping Company (1928-33)
United States Shipping Board (1933-35)
Laid up (1935-41)
Irish Shipping Ltd (1941-43)
Port of registry: United States New Orleans (1919-41)
Republic of Ireland Dublin (1941-43)
Route: Cork - Tampa (1941-43)
Builder: Southwestern Shipbuilding, San Pedro, Los Angeles
Yard number: 11
Launched: 24 August 1918
Completed: December 1919
Out of service: 1935-41
Identification: United States Official Number 219434 (1919-41)
United Kingdom Official Number 159359 (1941-43)
Code Letters LVFP (1919-34)
Code Letters KOTK (1934-41)
Code Letters EINY (1941-43)
Fate: Torpedoed and sunk by U-607 15 May 1943
Notes: Built to Design 1019
General characteristics
Tonnage: 5,589 GRT
8,542 DWT
Length: 410 feet 5 inches (125.10 m)
Beam: 54 feet 3 inches (16.54 m)
Depth: 27 feet 2 inches (8.28 m)
Installed power: Triple expansion steam engine, Llewellyn Iron Works, Los Angeles
Speed: 10.5 knots (19.4 km/h)

The steamship SS Irish Oak was completed in 1919 as the SS West Neris, commissioned by the United States Maritime Commission (USMC) and operated by the United States Shipping Board (USSB). She was briefly sold to the Mississippi Shipping Company before reverting to the USSB.

In 1941, she was chartered by Irish Shipping Limited, to transport wheat and fertilizer from North America to Ireland. Sailing as a clearly marked neutral vessel, not in-convoy, she was nonetheless torpedoed and sunk by Template:GS on 15 May 1943 midway between North America and Ireland. The crew were rescued.

At the time there were conflicting reports that she had not and allegations that she had warned a nearby convoy of the presence of a U-boat. The British nationality of her captain became an issue in the Irish general election of June 1943, there were diplomatic exchanges between the United States and the the Irish Republic, and questions raised in the British House of Commons. The U-boat's captain received a mild reprimand.


Southwestern Shipbuilding of San Pedro, California, was organized in 1918 to build cargo ships for the United States Shipping Board. As Yard No. 11, the ship was built to Design 1019, launched on 24 August 1918 and completed in December 1919. Her displacement was 5,589 tons, length 410 feet 5 inches (125.10 m), with a beam of 54 feet 3 inches (16.54 m),[1] and a depth of 27 feet 2 inches (8.28 m).[2]

Propelled by a triple expansion steam engine built by the Llewellyn Iron Works of Los Angeles,[2] with cylinders of 24.5 inches (62 cm), 42.5 inches (108 cm) and 72 inches (180 cm) bore and 48 inches (120 cm) stroke, the ship could make 10.5 knots (19.4 km/h).[1]

West Neris

West Neris had been built for the United States Maritime Commission (USMC) and operated by the United States Shipping Board (USSB),[3] her port of registry being New Orleans.[2]

In 1928, she was sold to the Mississippi Steamship Company.[3] She was sold back to the USSB in 1933.[3] With the abolition of the USSB, she was transferred to the United States Shipping Board Bureau in 1935,[3] and laid up in New Orleans. During this period the ship was neglected and the condition of her engine deteriorated.[4] In 1937 she was transferred to the United States Maritime Commission.[3] On 26 September 1941 she was chartered to Irish Shipping Ltd, through United States Lines at £3,245 per month.[3]

Irish Oak


At the outbreak of World War II Ireland had very few ships,[5][6] and the United States instructed its ships not to enter the "war zone".[7] Acting for the Irish Government, Minister Frank Aiken negotiated the charter of two oil-burning steamships from the United States Maritime Commission’s reserve fleet.[8] These were the West Neris and the West Hematite. Two Irish crews travelled to New Orleans to take over the ships, which they did on 9 September 1941.[9]

The West Neris was renamed Irish Oak and West Hematite was renamed Irish Pine.[10] Both were chartered by government owned Irish Shipping Limited (ISL) and managed by the Limerick Steamship Company,[9] with their port of registry changed to Dublin.[11] The Irish Oak was captained by Matthew Moran of Wexford; the Irish Pine by Frank Dick of Islandmagee, with Samuel McNamara of Belfast as Chief Engineer.[4]

Initial sailing, convoys and delays

Destined to carry wheat and phosphate fertilizer, both ships sailed initially from New Orleans for St John's in October 1941, to take on cargoes of wheat[12] bound for Ireland. Since insurers such as Lloyd's of London charged higher premiums for ships not in convoy,[13] the Irish Oak and the Irish Pine were painted war-time camouflage in preparation for sailing in-convoy. Irish Pine joined Convoy SC 56[14] and arrived in Dublin on 11 December 1941. In contrast, Irish Oak experienced a number of serious mishaps and setbacks: Chief Engineer R. Marsh, of Dublin, suffered a heart attack and was hospitalised in New Orleans; another engineer, O’Keefe of Dún Laoghaire, was severely burned in a boiler room blow-back[4] and hospitalised in St John; and a locally recruited Greek replacement engineer caused difficulties, was reported to the Canadian authorities by the captain, and jailed.[4]

Initially Irish Oak sailed with Convoy SC 52, which departed from Sydney, Nova Scotia on 29 October 1941. On 3 November the convoy was attacked by Template:GS and Template:GS and lost four ships; it turned back for Sydney and arrived on 5 November.[15] But neglect had left the Irish Oak in poor condition. Ships from SC 52 were merged with Convoy SC 53 and Irish Oak sailed with it, but had to return to Sydney.[16] Her next attempt was with Convoy SC 55, which departed Sydney on 16 November 1941 and arrived at Liverpool on 5 December, but again engine problems struck and she was towed to Saint John, New Brunswick.[12] Irish Oak remained in St. John for four months while efforts were made to repair her engine. Eventually she had to be towed to Boston for repairs. The voyage from New Orleanse to Dublin - including repairs - took nine months: Irish Oak berthed in Dublin on 6 July 1942.[4]

Out of convoy sailings

The crew of the Irish Oak became acutely uneasy after her engine failed and she was left behind by SC 55, dead in the water, to wait for a tugboat; this, coupled with the experiences of other Irish ships, especially the "Nightmare Convoy"[17] in August 1941, resolved Irish crews and owners to sail as neutrals, out-of-convoy.[18] Thereafter Irish ships were clearly marked and fully lit, usually sailing out-of-convoy on a direct course, and they always answered SOS calls for assistance. Irish ships rescued 534 men,[note 1] yet lost 20% of their seamen.[21]

Irish Shipping Limited built up its fleet to 15 ships.[22] Two ships were lost, Irish Oak, and Irish Pine, on which 33 lives were lost. The ISL ships alone saved some 166 lives.[23]

The Stornest

At 04:44 on 14 October 1942, in very bad weather, Irish Oak received a distress call from British ship Stornest, a straggler from convoy ONS 136, torpedoed by Template:GS.[24] Irish Oak answered the call and altered course. Six minutes later Stornest radioed Irish Oak that they were abandoning ship in life-rafts, having lost their lifeboats in the heavy seas. Irish Oak continued to relay Stormest's SOS and spent ten hours searching for survivors in a westerly gale. The rescue tug Adherent, the anti-submarine trawler Drangey and two corvettes from convoy ONS 137 joined the search, to no avail.[25][26] Stornest's crew of 29 and ten gunners were lost at sea.[27]

A week later Captain Matthew Moran was fatally injured while boarding at the Dublin quayside, when the gangway collapsed beneath him.[28] He was replaced by Captain Eric Jones (see Crew).

Encounter with U-650

On 14 May 1943, Irish Oak was en route from Tampa, Florida, to Dublin with a cargo of 8,000 tons of phosphate fertiliser. Smoke from an allied convoy was visible ahead in the distance; in general Irish ships were sailing out-of-convoy at this time.

At 2.23pm German U-boat Template:GS came alongside. There was no contact or exchange between the vessels. They continued alongside each other all afternoon. At nightfall Irish Oak turned on her lights, in accordance with her neutral status. Apparently satisfied, U-650 departed during the night.[29] Irish Oak continued sailing astern of convoy SC 129.

As it happened, on the same day U-642 reported that an aircraft carrier was joining the convoy; in fear of the aircraft, the stalking U-boats were ordered to "break off operations against convoy".[30]


As dawn broke next morning, 15 May 1943, a torpedo hit Irish Oak at 8:19am (12:19 German Summer Time). Two torpedoes were launched, one missed, the other struck her port side and exploded.[31]

At the time it was uncertain which submarine had launched the torpedoes. Its periscope remained visible as lifeboats were lowered. The submarine waited until the lifeboats were well clear before firing a coup de grâce at 9:31 am. Irish Plane, Irish Rose and Irish Ash responded to the SOS. The survivors were located by Irish Plane at 4:20 pm.

Irish Oak lies in position 47°51′N 25°53′W / 47.85°N 25.883°W / 47.85; -25.883Coordinates: 47°51′N 25°53′W / 47.85°N 25.883°W / 47.85; -25.883, almost mid-way between Newfoundland and Ireland.[32]


The survivors landed at Cobh on 19 May.[33][34] They were welcomed by Samuel Roycroft, a director of both the Limerick Steamship Company and of Irish Shipping Limited. They lunched at the Imperial Hotel, Cork.[35] On arrival in Dublin on 21 May, they were welcomed by Peadar Doyle, the Lord Mayor, and hosted to lunch at Leinster House, home of the Dáil Éireann (Ireland's parliament), on 24 May.[36]

It was common practice for crews' wages to be stopped when a ship was sunk.[37] Famed Labour leader James Larkin raised the issue of the survivors' treatment in the Dáil Éireann. Citing the crew member who was told by the Labour exchange to 'go and get his record card', which was lost when Irish Oak sank, he suggested that the Dáil Éireann ask the German Consul-General to send a submarine to retrieve it.[38]



At the time it was not known which submarine had sunk Irish Oak. The survivors knew only that it was not U-650.[39] In the House of Commons Sir William Davidson called for a formal protest, because Irish Oak had not warned the convoy, and Douglas Lloyd Savory called for an end of coal exports to Ireland.[40]

No official action was taken: Ireland was exporting food to Britain at the time. Also, Paul Emrys-Evans revealed that the convoy knew about the U-boat; the British stance was that, as it already knew of the presence of both Irish Oak and U-607, there was no need for Irish Oak to have warned the convoy.[41]


During World War I the South Arklow Lightvessel Guillemot, operated by the Commissioners of Irish Lights, had given warning of a U-boat. In consequence on 28 March 1917 UC-65 surfaced, ordered the crew into their lifeboat, and sank the Guillemot.[42] Against this background the sinking of Irish Oak became a hotly debated issue.

The Irish Government's stance was that Irish Oak had not warned the Allied convoy of a U-boat presence, as stated by Éamon de Valera in the Dáil,[43] and by Irish Shipping Limited.[44] De Valera went on to say that it was " business of Irish ships to give any information to anyone".

A rumour to the contrary was picked-up by the Labour Party (Ireland). James Everett asked: "Was information given to the British convoy that a submarine was sighted the night before?"[44] Discussed in the Dáil Éireann during the run-up to the General Election, attention focused on the possibility that a warning had been transmitted and demands were made to know the nationality of the captain (a British subject):[43]

  • Bill Norton: "Would the Taoiseach state the nationality of the master of the ship?"
  • Éamon de Valera: "I do not know it."
  • James Hickey: "I think the Taoiseach should take a deep interest in finding out the nationality of the captains of our ships."
  • William Davin: "Is the Taoiseach aware that a recommendation was submitted that Irish nationals should get preference for these ships?"
Norton, Hickey and Davin were Labour Party members.

Luke Duffy, secretary of the Labour Party, said that the "... government was guilty of duplicity and near belligerency behind a facade of neutrality. They had placed foreign nationals on the bridge of Irish ships ...”[44] The party took out an advertisement condemning the "criminal conduct of the Fianna Fáil Government in sending brave men to their doom on the Irish Oak".[45]

Responding to allegations that Irish Oak had acted in such a way as to endanger her neutral status, Irish Shipping Limited stated:

"...whether... any information had been conveyed to a British convoy that a submarine had been sighted. The company states in the most explicit manner that there is no foundation whatever for the suggestion contained in the question. No such message was sent.[36]

Seán MacEntee (Fianna Fáil Party) placed a counter advertisement in the Irish Times titled "Licence to Sink," saying that the Labour Party sought to justify the sinking of the Irish Oak; "But for these ships many of our people might have been hungry, would have been idle" ... "If our people were hungry and idle they would be more ready to listen to their pernicious doctrines".[46]

After the election William Davin complained of "the unfounded allegations and the slanderous and libellous statements made against members of this {sic Labour} Party" ... "had the audacity to charge members of this Party, during the recent election campaign, with having condoned the sinking of the Irish Oak. Could anything be more scandalous, or more untrue?"[47]

Although Labour increased its representation and de Valera's Fianna Fáil party lost seats in the General Election, Éamon de Valera remained in power with the support of the Farmers' Party.[48]


It was not known at the time which submarine had sunk Irish Oak, only that it was not U-650.[39] Irish Shipping Limited was negotiating a lease of the SS Wolverine from the United States. The U.S. State Department intervened, asking why Ireland had not protested to Germany for the sinking.[49]

The Irish replied that they protested other sinkings when the attacker was known. They protested the attacks on the colliers Glencullen and Glencree.[50] They referred to the attack on the MV Kerlogue by two unidentified aircraft, initially denied by the British but admitted when shell fragments of British manufacture were found.[51]

No further American ships were leased or sold to Ireland.[23]


Not until after the war was it learned Template:GS had sunk Irish Oak. This action, and U-607's report, were not well received. Her Captain, Oberleutnant zur See Wolf Jeschonnek, claimed Irish Oak was a Q-ship with false Irish markings, sailing without lights.[52]

"The Second Lieutenant excused the sinking by saying that "IRISH OAK" was obviously a "Q" ship. He alleged that she was sailing at night without lights, zig-zagging, and traveling at fourteen knots, although she appeared capable of barely half that speed."[52]

Flag Officer U-boats said it ought not to have happened, but could be attributed to an understandable mistake by an eager captain. "The precise observance of Irish neutralitty and of all Flag Officer U-boats' strict orders in this connection is the duty of all U-boat captains and is in the most immediate and pressing interests of the German Reich".[33]

U-607 was sunk at 45°02′N 9°14′W / 45.033°N 9.233°W / 45.033; -9.233 on 13 July 1943 by a Sunderland of 228 Squadron Royal Air Force, assisted by a Halifax of 58 Squadron.[52] Oberleutnant Jeschonnek and six of his crew were taken prisoner; the rest perished.[44]

Nine days after the sinking of Irish Oak, on 24 May 1943, Admiral Dönitz ordered a U-boat withdrawal from the Atlantic. Of their operational fleet 41 U-boats - or 25% - had been lost in Black May, against a total of 50 Allied merchant ships destroyed. The Battle of the Atlantic was over.[53]


The crew of the Irish Oak when she was sunk on 15 May 1943, all of whom were rescued:[36]

Position Name / Home Position Name / Home
Captain Eric Jones, Dublin and Wales First Mate J.P. Kelly, Donnybrook
Second Mate Thomas Donohue, Dungarvan Third Mate Thomas Dunne, Rosslare Harbour
Carpenter Thomas Kearney, Ringsend Able Seamen J. Sweeney, Fethard-on-Sea
Able Seamen T. Byrne, Dublin Able Seamen J. Downes, Fethard-on-Sea
Able Seamen C. Greene, Booterstown Able Seamen P. Kelly, Clogherhead
Able Seamen Nicholas Rickard, Howth Ordinary Seamen Thomas Deevey, Ringsend
Ordinary Seamen J. Beehan, Limerick Chief Engineer Eric Evans, Ranelagh and Cardiff
Second Engineer L. Worsley, Limerick and South Shields Third Engineer J. Pollock, Glasgow
Fourth Engineer A.J. O’Mahony, Passage West Donkey Man William Barry, North Wall
Greaser Peter Askins, East Wall Greaser William Mates, Crumlin and Wicklow
Greaser J. Jenkins, Dún Laoghaire Firemen J. Kenny, Dublin
Firemen J. Kelly, Cork Firemen J. Cunningham, East Wall
Chief Steward George Kerr, Dublin and Scotland Assistant Steward B. Seymour, Drumcondra
Ship’s Cook P. Farrelly, Ballinamore Assistant Cook James O’Hara, Dublin
Mess Room Boy John Clarke, Dublin First Radio Officer J.J. Bourke, New Ross
Second Radio Officer E.F. Whyte, Sundays Well Sailor James Cullen, Ringsend

Eric Jones had been captain of the SS Luimneach when it was sunk by gunfire from U-46[54][55] on 4 September 1940.[56] He then captained the SS Edenvale, which was bombed on 17 October 1941.[25][57]

Thomas Donohue (Second Mate) went on to captain MV Kerlogue, replacing Desmond Fortune who was unable to walk following the RAF attack on it.[58]

James Burke (Radio Officer) had served on SS Oropesa[59] which was torpedoed and sunk by U-96, with 106 lives lost.[60]

Official Numbers and Code Letters

Official Numbers, a forerunner to IMO Numbers, were:

  • West Neris - United States Official Number 219439.[2]
  • Irish Oak - United Kingdom Official Number 189859.[11]

Code Letters:

  • West Neris - LVFP until 1933,[2] KOTK from 1934.[61]
  • Irish Oak - EINY.[11]

Other ships named Irish Oak

In 1949, Irish Shipping Limited acquired a new Irish Oak (Official Number 174596). Built for ISL by J. Readhead and Sons Ltd., South Shields; Bill Norton complained that it was to be British built.[62] It would be immortalised in Frank McCourt’s book “’Tis”. In 1967 she was sold to Proverde Shipping of Greece and renamed Vegas. In 1979, en-route from Piraeus to Vietnam, she ran aground near Jeddah, was re-floated but sold for breaking up.[63]

In 1973, Irish Shipping Limited acquired another Irish Oak, a bulk carrier motor ship with a diesel engine. Irish Oak, 16,704 GRT, 25,649 DWT, was in service with Irish Shipping until 1982.[64]

See also

References and sources

  1. 534 lives were saved, this excludes rescues by lifeboats, fishing trawlers and other craft. Most sources say 521, this comes from a list of rescues in Appendix 4 of Frank Forde's book.[19] However that list omits the rescue of 13 survivors from the Roxby by the Irish Beech[20]
  1. 1.0 1.1 ""2219434"" (subscription required). Miramar Ship Index. R.B. Haworth. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "Lloyds Register, Navires a Vapeur et a Moteurs". Plimsoll Ship Data. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Spong, page 29
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Forde, page 41
  5. Forde, page 1
  6. Fisk, page 272
  7. Brune, Lester H. (2003). Burns, Richard Dean. ed. Chronological History of U.S. Foreign Relations: 1932-1988. 2. Routledge. pp. 537. ISBN 041593916X, 9780415939164. "defined the combat area where U.S. ships and citizens were excluded" 
  8. Dwyer, page 107
  9. 9.0 9.1 Forde, page 40
  10. Coogan, page 255
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Lloyds Register, Navires a Vapeur et a Moteurs". Plimsoll Ship Data. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "CONVOY SC 55". Warsailors. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  13. Robb-Webb, Jon (2001). "Convoy". in Richard Holmes. The Oxford Companion to Military History. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  14. "CONVOY SC 56". Warsailors. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  15. "CONVOY SC 52". Warsailors. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  16. "CONVOY SC 53". Warsailors. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  17. Lund, Paul; Harry Ludlam and Tom Shuttleworth (1987). Nightmare Convoy. Foulsham. ISBN 978-0572014520. 
  18. Forde, page 86
  19. Forde, page 143
  20. "Roxby". Ships hit by U-boats. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  21. Share, page 101
  22. Coogan, page 251
  23. 23.0 23.1 Spong, page 11
  24. "Stornest". Ships hit by U-boats. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 Hamiliton, R. C. (2009). The Seventy-seven Year Good Deed: A True Story of Legacy and Continuance. Dorrance Publishing. pp. 50. ISBN 1434992810, 9781434992819. 
  26. Davies, Sid (December 1992). "In Memory of Idris Thomas, Lost at Sea". Sea Breezes 66 (564). 
  27. Hocking, Charles (2004). Dictionary of disasters at sea during the age of steam. 2. Gardners Books. ISBN 0948130725, 9780948130724. 
  28. Forde, page 50
  29. Forde, page 57
  30. Syrett, David (1994). The defeat of the German U-boats: the Battle of the Atlantic. Studies in Maritime History. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 115–116. ISBN 0872499847, 9780872499843. 
  31. Forde, Frank (Winter 2002). "Torpedoed ship's crew rescued by another Irish vessel". Journal of the Sea (Maritime Institute of Ireland): 39. 
  32. "Ship Details: Irish Oak". Kriegsmarine and U-Boat history.;nr=6. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 Forde, page 58
  34. "Irish Oak Crew has Landed". Irish Times. 20 May 1943. pp. 1. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  35. Forde, page 91
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 Higgins, page 10
  37. "Canonsea, Convoy HX72 & U-100". Annemarie Purnell. Retrieved 12 December 2009. 
  38. "Dáil Éireann - Volume 91 - 2 July 1943". Oireactas. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  39. 39.0 39.1 Higgins, page 9
  40. "Enemy Submarines (Non-Notification, Eire Government)". House of Commons debates, 8 June 1943. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  41. "The Under-Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs (Mr. Emrys-Evans)". 8 June 1943 → Commons Sitting → FUEL AND POWER. HANSARD 1803–2005. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  42. Blaney, Jim (2006-2007). "The South Arklow Lightvessel and UC-65". Beam (Commissioners of Irish Lights) 35. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 "Dáil Éireann - Volume 90 - 26 May 1943, Ceisteanna—Questions. Oral Answers. - Sinking of “Irish Oak.”". Oireachtas. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 Forde, page 59
  45. "Dáil Éireann - Volume 91 - 9 July 1943 Emergency Powers (Continuance) Bill, 1943—Second Stage (Resumed).". Oireachtas. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  46. Sean, MacEntee (21 June 1943). "Licence to Sink". Irish Times. pp. 2. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  47. "Dáil Éireann - Volume 90 - Irish Oak, Nomination of Members of Government—Motion (Resumed).". Oireachtas. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  48. Gray, page 206
  49. "Inability of United States To Sell Additional Merchant Ships to Ireland". Press Release. Department of State bulletin. 11 March 1944. Retrieved 23 March 2010. 
  50. Fisk, page 275
  51. Forde, page 118
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 "U-607, Interrogation of survivors". Uboat Archive. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  53. Stern, Robert C (1977). U-Boats in action. Squadron/Signal Publications. pp. 7. ISBN 0897470540, 9780897470544. 
  54. "Ships hit by U-boats". Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  55. Forde, page 71
  56. "Ships hit by U-46". Retrieved 3 December 2009. 
  57. Forde, page 113
  58. Kennedy, page 253
  59. The Nautical magazine. 189-190. 1963. pp. 117. 
  60. "Oropesa". Ships hit by U-boats. Retrieved 3 December 2009. 
  61. "Lloyds Register, Navires a Vapeur et a Moteurs". Plimsoll Ship Data. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  62. "Dáil Éireann - Volume 102 - 16 July 1946, Ceisteanna—Questions. Oral Answers. - Building of Cargo Liners.". Oirechtas. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  63. Spong, page 34
  64. "mv IRISH OAK". Clydesite. Retrieved 23 March 2010. 
  • Coogan, Tim Pat (2003). Ireland in the Twentieth Century. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0091794277. 
  • Dwyer, T Ryle (1977). Irish neutrality and the USA, 1939-47. Gill and Macmillan. ISBN 9780874719949. 
  • Fisk, Robert (1983). In Time of War. London: André Deutsch. ISBN 0233975144. 
  • Forde, Frank (reprint 2000) [1981]. The Long Watch. Dublin: New Island Books. ISBN 1902602420. 
  • Gray, Tony (1997). The Lost Years. London: Little, Brown & Co. ISBN 0316881899. 
  • John Higgins, ed (Spring/Summer 1980). "War Time Fleet: No. 8 "Irish Oak"". Signal (Dublin: Irish Shipping Ltd.) 17 (3). 
  • Kennedy, Michael (2008). Guarding Neutral Ireland. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 9781846820977. 
  • Share, Brendan (1978). The Emergency - Neutral Ireland 1939-45. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. ISBN 71710916X. 
  • Spong, Harry (1982). Irish Shipping Limited. World Ship Society. ISBN 0905617207. 
  • Wills, Clair (2007). That Neutral Island. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 9780571221059. 

External links