USS Susan B. Anthony (AP-72)
Susan B. Anthony at Oran, 5 July 1943
|Name:||USS Susan B. Anthony|
|Namesake:||Susan B. Anthony|
|Builder:||New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey|
|Launched:||March 1930, as SS Santa Clara|
|Acquired:||7 August 1942|
|Commissioned:||7 September 1942, as USS Susan B. Anthony|
|Struck:||29 July 1944|
|3 battle stars (World War II)|
|Fate:||Mined, 7 June 1944|
|Displacement:||8,193 long tons (8,324 t)|
|Length:||505 ft 2 in (153.97 m)|
|Beam:||63 ft 6 in (19.35 m)|
|Draft:||25 ft (7.6 m)|
|Speed:||18 kn (21 mph; 33 km/h)|
|Complement:||158 officers and men|
|Armament:||1 × 5 in (130 mm)/38 cal dual purpose gun, 4 × 3 in (76 mm)/50 cal anti-aircraft guns|
USS Susan B. Anthony (AP-72) was a transport ship in the United States Navy during World War II, named after the prominent civil rights campaigner, and one of the few Naval vessels named after a woman.
Originally a passenger steamer built at Camden, New Jersey for the Grace Steamship Company, she was launched in March 1930 by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation as SS Santa Clara. She was acquired by the Navy on 7 August 1942; renamed Susan B. Anthony and converted at Bethlehem Steel's New York yard; and commissioned on 7 September 1942, Captain Henry Hartley assumed command on the 29th.
Invasion of North Africa, 1942
After almost a month of drills and exercises in the lower Chesapeake Bay, the transport — carrying troops and equipment — steamed out of the bay on 23 October for the invasion of North Africa. At the completion of a 15-day passage, she arrived in the transport area off Mehdia, French Morocco. Early the next morning, on 8 November, the Northern Attack Group opened the assault upon Mehdia and Port Lyautey. Despite the general difficulties encountered in handling landing craft, she disembarked her troops and unloaded their equipment in relatively good order. She remained in the area a week before sailing on the 15th for Safi to unload the rest of her cargo. She departed that port on 18 November bound for Norfolk, Virginia, and arrived at Hampton Roads on the last day of the month.
Invasion of Sicily, 1943
After a brief excursion to the Gulf of Arzeu ferrying men and equipment, she returned to Oran on 25 June 1943 to prepare for the campaign against Sicily. She embarked men and loaded material on 30 June-1 July, fueled on the 2nd, and stood out from Oran three days later.
Anthony approached the coast of Sicily on the 9th near the town of Scoglitti. She spent the early hours of the following day landing troops and equipment. By 04:35, the ships of the assault force were under attack by enemy aircraft. Bombs rained close to Anthony, but she emerged with only minor damage from bomb fragments. Just before 06:00, she started toward the inshore anchorage, but withdrew after coming under fire from shore batteries. About four hours later, she was able to enter the anchorage and dispatch her salvage crew to aid broached and disabled landing craft.
Throughout that day and the next, air attacks kept her crew scurrying to battle stations. Just after 22:00 on the 11th, a twin-engine plane singled out Anthony and commenced its run on her. By the time it had closed to within 1,500 yd (1,400 m) of the ship, Anthony's anti-aircraft guns had reduced it to a falling ball of fire. Less than 10 minutes later, another enemy bomber met a similar fate.
Late in the afternoon of 12 July, Susan B. Anthony weighed anchor for Oran. There, she loaded prisoners; sailed for the U.S.; and reached New York on 3 August 1943.
Atlantic convoys, 1943–1944
For the next 10 months, Anthony moved back and forth across the Atlantic transporting soldiers and cargo between various points in the U.S., England, Iceland, Ireland, and Scotland in preparation for "Operation Overlord", the cross-channel invasion of Europe at Normandy. During these voyages, she visited such places as Belfast, Northern Ireland; Holy Loch, Gourock, and Glasgow in Scotland; Hvalfjörður and Reykjavík, Iceland; Mumbles and Milford Haven, Wales; and Newport, England.
Sinking off Normandy, 7 June 1944
Early in the morning of 7 June 1944, while cruising through a swept channel off Normandy, Susan B. Anthony struck a mine which exploded under her number 4 hold. Immediately, she lost all power, and her rudder went hard left and stuck. By 08:05, holds numbers 4 and 5 were shipping water badly, and the ship took on an 8° list to starboard. In an effort to save his ship, the commanding officer, Commander T. L. Gray, USNR, ordered the embarked soldiers to move to the port side. This human ballast soon brought Anthony back to an even keel.
At 08:22, fleet tug Pinto came alongside, prepared to tow the paralyzed Anthony to shallow water. However, soon thereafter, fires erupted in the engine and fire rooms, and the transport began to settle more rapidly. At this point, the captain concluded that the ship was lost and ordered her abandoned. With Pinto and two destroyers alongside, the troops were evacuated expeditiously and without resorting to fireboats and rafts. Anthony's crew followed closely behind the soldiers. By 09:05, the main deck was awash at the stern, and she was listing badly. The last member of the salvage crew hit the water at about 10:00, with Commander Gray soon following. At 10:10, Susan B. Anthony was gone. No one was killed, and few of the 45 wounded were seriously hurt. The Guinness Book of World Records 2000 has the sinking of the Susan B. Anthony listed as the largest rescue of people without loss of life; all 2,689 people aboard were saved. She was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 29 July 1944.
- Photo gallery of USS Susan B. Anthony at NavSource Naval History
- Naval Historical Center Online Library of Selected Images: USS Susan B. Anthony (AP-72), 1942-1944