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A barque, barc, or bark is a type of sailing vessel with three or more masts.
History of the term
The word barc appears to have come from the Greek word baris, a term for an Egyptian boat. This entered Latin as barca, which gave rise to the Italian barca and the French barge and barque. French influence in England led to the use in English of both words, although their meanings now are not the same. Well before the nineteenth century a barge had become interpreted as a small vessel of coastal or inland waters. Somewhat later, a bark became a sailing vessel of a distinctive rig as detailed below. In Britain, by the mid-nineteenth century, the spelling had taken on the French form of barque. Francis Bacon used this form of the word as early as 1605. Throughout the period of sail, the word was used also as a shortening of the barca-longa of the Mediterranean Sea.
In the eighteenth century, the British Royal Navy used the term bark for a nondescript vessel that did not fit any of its usual categories. Thus, when the British Admiralty purchased a collier for use by James Cook in his journey of exploration, she was registered as HM Bark Endeavour to distinguish her from another Endeavour, a sloop already in service at the time. She happened to be a ship-rigged sailing vessel with a plain bluff bow and a full stern with windows.
William Falconer's Dictionary of the Marine defined "Bark", as "a general name given to small ships: it is however peculiarly appropriated by seamen to those which carry three masts without a mizen top-sail. Our northern mariners, who are trained in the coal-trade, apply this distinction to a broad-sterned ship, which carries no ornamental figure on the stem or prow."
By the end of the eighteenth century, however, the term barque (sometimes, particularly in the USA, spelled bark) came to refer to any vessel with a particular type of sail-plan. This comprises three (or more) masts, fore-and-aft sails on the aftermost mast and square sails on all other masts. Barques were the workhorse of the Golden Age of Sail in the mid 19th century as they attained passages that nearly matched full rigged ships but could operate with smaller crews.
The advantage of these rigs was that they needed smaller (therefore cheaper) crews than a comparable full-rigged ship or brig-rigged vessel as there were fewer of the labour intensive square sails. Also the rig itself is cheaper. Conversely, the ship rig tended to be retained for training vessels where the larger the crew, the more seamen were trained.
Another advantage is that a barque can outperform a schooner or barkentine, and is both easier to handle and better to rise toward wind than a full-rigged ship. While a full-rigged ship is the best runner available, and while fore-and-aft riggers are the best to rise toward wind, the barque is often the best compromise between these two, and combines the best of these two.
Most ocean-going windjammers were four-masted barques, since the four-masted barque is considered the most efficient rig available because of its ease of handling, small need of manpower, good running capabilities, and good capabilities of rising toward wind. Usually the fore mast was the tallest; that of Moshulu extends to 58 m off the deck. The four-masted barque can be handled with a surprisingly small crew—at minimum, ten—and while the usual crew was around thirty, almost half of them could be apprentices.
Today most sailing school ships are barques.
A well-preserved example of a commercial barque is the Pommern, the only windjammer in original condition. Its home is in Mariehamn outside the Åland maritime museum. The wooden barque Sigyn, built in Göteborg 1887, is now a museum ship in Turku. The wooden whaling barque Charles W. Morgan, launched 1841, taken out of service 1921, is now a museum ship at Mystic Seaport in Connecticut. The United States Coast Guard still has an operational barque, built in Germany in 1936 and captured as a war prize, the USCGC Eagle, which the United States Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut uses as a training vessel. The Sydney Heritage Fleet restored an iron-hulled three-masted barque, the James Craig, originally constructed in 1874. The oldest active sailing vessel in the world, the Star of India, was built in 1863 as a full-rigged ship, then converted into a barque in 1901.
Barques and barque shrines in Ancient Egypt
In Ancient Egypt barques, referred to using the French word as Egyptian hieroglyphs were first translated by the Frenchman Jean-François Champollion, were a type of boat used from Egypt's earliest recorded times and are depicted in many drawings, paintings, and reliefs that document the culture. Transportation to the afterlife was believed to be accomplished by way of barques as well, and the image is used in many of the religious murals and carvings in temples and tombs.
The most important Egyptian barque was the one in which the dead pharaoh was transported to become a deity. Great care was taken to provide a beautiful barque to the pharaoh for this journey and models of the boats were placed in their tombs. Many models of these boats, that range from tiny to huge in size, have been found. Wealthy and royal members of the culture also provided barques for their final journey. The type of vessel depicted in Egyptian images remains quite similar throughout the thousands of years the culture persisted.
Barques were important religious artifacts and since the deities were thought to travel in this fashion in the sky—the milky way was seen as a great waterway that was as important as the Nile on Earth—statues of the deities traveled by boats on water and ritual boats were carried about by the priests during festival ceremonies. Temples included barque shrines, sometimes more than one in a temple, in which the sacred barques rested when a procession was not in progress. In these stations the boats would be watched over and cared for by the priests.
- Barquentine (3 masts, foremast square-rigged)
- Brigantine (2 masts, foremast square-rigged)
- Jackass-barque (3 masts, foremast and upper part of mizzen mast square rigged)
- List of large sailing vessels
- Ayto, John (1990). Dictionary of Word Origins. Arcade Publishing. pp. 52, 53. ISBN 1559702141.
- William Falconer's Dictionary of the Marine
- Sailing Ships
- Mystic Seaport homepage
- "Egyptian Temples of the New Kingdom". http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/egyptian_temples/egyptian_temples-text.htm.
- "Ancient Egypt 2675–332 B.c.e.: Religion: Temple Architecture and Symbolism". Arts and Humanities Through the Eras. http://www.bookrags.com/research/ancient-egypt-2675-332-bce-religion-ahe-01/temple-architecture-and-symbolism-ahe-01.html.
- Oxford English Dictionary (1971) ISBN 0-19-861212-5
|Search Wiktionary||Look up barque in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- "Sailing Ship Rigs" Infosheet Guide to Classic Sailing Rigs Maritime Museum of the Atlantic
- Description of the four-masted barque Kaiwo Maru
- Wilhelmsen, F D (1956). Omega: Last of the barques. Westminster, MD: Newman Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=yAIYAAAAIAAJ&dq=barque%20omega&lr=&num=100&as_brr=4&pg=PA97#v=onepage&q=barque%20omega&f=false.
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